The Hilary Koprowski Krowd: Just Monkeying Around
By 1952 two important scientific factors for the ultimate development of the co-factors of AIDS were in place, albeit in a rudimentary and poorly understood way: the immune suppressing mycoplasma and an early understanding of the retrovirus. It was enough to require some sort of testing to determine whether the promise that the co-factors seemed to hold, could in fact be realized. This state of knowing some things but not knowing others was not enough to prevent further efforts to put what was known to work as soon as possible. Robert Gallo himself admitted as much when he wrote in another context:
“Some commentators on the history of science have noted that scientists did not need to understand any fundamentals or mechanisms to come up with antibiotic cures for some bacterial diseases, nor did Sabin, Salk and Koprowski need to know how the polio virus worked to develop their vaccines.”
So it was with the powerful and hidden patrons of those scientists whose scientific research could be put to work to develop a deadly pathogen based upon the co-factors being developed.
The PPLO of Huebner, which turned out to be a species of mycoplasma, did not have to be understood in order to see that its great capacity to compromise the immune system and to cause the degeneration of cells could be an important component of a new microorganism. A microorganism composed of co-factors, which did not naturally exist, as Dr. MacArthur was later to tell certain Congressmen on June 9, 1969, but one, which would be refractory to the human immune system. At the same time these patrons saw that the mycoplasma if united with the visna retrovirus of Sigurdsson could open the way for the latter disease agent to have its way within the body of a targeted victim. The mycoplasma would lower the immune defence system and the retroviral RNA of visna could then access selected cells and direct those cells’ DNA to reproduce copies of its mutated self.
And this is just what happened.
If we skip ahead to July, 1972, and if we study the Special Virus Cancer Program, Progress Report #9 we find on page 39 the following statement: “We have for the first time demonstrated that the … RNA directed DNA polymerase, can be activated by alteration of the physiological endocrine balance.” The RNA directed DNA polymerase is the retrovirus at work. It can be put to work if the endocrine balance of the body is altered… and that is just what happens when the mycoplasma up-takes pre-formed cholesterol to meet its own absolute growth requirements. When the cholesterol is up-taken, the production of hormones in the endocrine system is altered because it is cholesterol from which the secretory glands manufacture hormones. The altered endocrine system in turn compromises the immune system.
However, the researchers of 1952 did not know these mechanics of the pathogenic co-factors. All that they and their patrons knew was that the mycoplasma altered cellular immune defence and that permitted retroviruses, such as visna of sheep, to do something they couldn’t do before: invade the cell’s DNA and create in humans the scrapie already seen in infected sheep.
Huebner and Sigurdsson’s work could be united. What was needed was some scientist of sufficient skill to do the science, and of sufficient moral deficiency to permit him to undertake such a task. Also, there had to be a place to do the work… one, which was totally and completely under the control of the patrons. There also had to be a cover story so that when the world saw the skilled scientist in the new physical facility doing all manner of biological research, there would be no suspicion that the goal of the whole enterprise was to slow the rate of growth of the world’s population. Finally, there had to be a way to get the new co-factors into the blood of the targeted victims without them knowing that they were being doomed to a terrible death.
And this is where one of the Rockefellers enters the scene as an active participant, rather than simply as the source of direction and funding.
In November 1951, war hero General Dwight Eisenhower was elected President of the United States. Between the date of his election and the day that he took office, he had to put together a Cabinet to run the vast machines of the bureaucracy. One person that he had to recruit was obviously one of the most political of the powerful Rockefeller family: Nelson Rockefeller.
To most peoples’ surprise, Nelson Rockefeller chose the job of Undersecretary of Health Education and Welfare [HEW]. At last one of the scions of one of the world’s most ardent eugenics-driven families had a toehold in government. And when
“…he became an administrator in charge of the new agency’s $2 billion budget and 35,000 -member staff , he began immediately setting up a war room….(H)e seemed to work through advisors that were hazy figures on the periphery of the internal administration. They were people who apparently were tied in with the numerous Rockefeller outside interests.”
And Nelson Rockefeller’s major outside interest was eugenics, and to advance this passion and co-op the public health agencies into the biowar weapons research of the military.
After these agencies of health and defence had been melded and the Department of Health was effectively a Department of Death, Rockefeller was appointed as Eisenhower’s ‘Special Assistant for Cold War Strategy’. Effectively, Rockefeller was in command of the Central Intelligence Agency, and was ready to declare a covert war against a major enemy: humanity. He began by taking direction of the CIA program known as MKULTRA, which had been launched in 1953. Ostensibly, the program was to be a secret study of ‘brain-washing’ in response to the work of the Chinese on prisoners of war from the Korean conflict. Under Rockefeller the MKULTRA expanded from one secret program to one program which held within itself several other secret programs, including MKNAOMI and MKDELTA, and quite possibly the MK-SVLP we have already encountered.
But, we are getting ahead of ourselves. We must first go back to 1952 and the research of Huebner and Sigurdsson. The eugenicists, led by the Rockefellers, needed someone to bring Huebner’s mycoplasma and Sigurdsson’s retrovirus together, and their man to do this was right there. Ready willing and able: Hilary Koprowski.
Hilary Koprowski had been born in Poland, educated as a microbiologist, and fled to Italy ahead of the German invaders. He immigrated to Brazil where he was employed by none other than the Rockefeller Foundation. Following the war he moved to the United States where he found employment with Lederle Laboratories, the pharmaceutical arm of American Cyanamid. He worked with Dr. Herald Cox from 1946 to 1950 developing a polio vaccine. American Cyanamid and Herald Cox were secretly engaged in biological weapons research as a photo in the official history of Fort Detrick was later to reveal, for there, right in the front row was Dr. Herald Cox.
The man, Hilary Koprowski, a Rockefeller alumnus, was available to follow up on the Huebner/ Sigurdsson research. Now, to find a place.
The place had to be somewhere that did not have a solid, informed Board of Directors already in place. Further, there could not be pre-existing staff already doing professional research. The answer was found when the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia was suddenly activated to be more than a biological museum as it had been. Then, in 1957 Hilary Koprowski was named its director. Koprowski moved rapidly to convert it into a beehive of biological research activity. The frontispiece of such activity was to be a search for an effective and safe polio vaccine. That was to be the cover, and like many covers devised by those working on covert programs, it had to have a level of activity in its professed field. Koprowski gave it this quality by doing extensive work in polio vaccine research. However, all the evidence points to other work going on beneath the surface that had to do with Huebner’s mycoplasma and Sigurdsson’s visna retrovirus.
The evidence for this conclusion lies in the fact that one of Koprowski’s early colleagues in his extended and re-furbished research laboratory was one named Leonard Hayflick. Dr. Hayflick turns up later in the history of AIDS development when it is reported in the SVCP, Progress Report #8, that when the public health agencies/ department of defence partners in biowar research decided to establish a Mycoplasma Research Institute, they appointed Hayflick to run it.
With the man and the place established, and with MKULTRA help in financing the activities, thanks to Nelson Rockefellers’ role in the Eisenhower administration, the answer to the question of a suitable cover was already at hand. On his transfer from Lederle it was decided that Koprowski would simply bring with him his Lederle research on polio vaccines, together with another Rockefeller alumnus, Tom Norton, to the Wistar.
The role of the CIA in financing the acquisition and re-modeling of Wistar is now hard to determine since, when the Watergate scandal broke, all known MKULTRA documents were collected and destroyed. However, a few pages managed to escape the destruction and these are now available to us. From these pages there are several references for the need of secure research and testing facilities, including a new wing for a hospital that was to play a part in the on-going efforts.
Thus, during the time frame, 1950-1960, Koprowski did his cover work on developing a polio vaccine while engaged in some mystery work for which he lost all record during a move! Unfortunately his dates on all of this are hopelessly inconsistent and suggest that the records were not lost but were destroyed. For example, he stated at one point that the records of his work from 1956 to 1970 had been lost when he moved to the Wistar in 1956!
However that may be, while engaged in whatever he was engaged in, Koprowski was also busy establishing a chimpanzee camp in the Belgian Congo. Ostensibly, the chimps were to be used to test his evolving polio vaccine, but therein lies another problem for him. It seems that the number of chimps used for polio research were reasonably well accounted for, and according to AIDS-historian, Edward Hooper, this figure falls well short of the number of chimps actually sacrificed during the period. Something other than polio vaccine was being tested at Camp Lindi in the Congo. The missing chimps were not those used concurrently by Friedrich (“Fritz”) Deinhardt when he was testing a hepatitis vaccine upon which he was working. Plain and simply…several chimps were used to test something that Koprowski and his colleagues wanted kept off the record.
We think that the evidence we now have is sufficient to warrant us declaring that Koprowski and certain others were working at Wistar to create a co-factor pathogen based upon Huebner’s mycoplasma and Sigurdsson’s retrovirus and that this pathogen was then tested on chimps at Camp Lindi.
Furthermore, given the fact that the mycoplasma has a very serious adverse effect upon the liver due to the up-take of liver-produced cholesterol, Fritz Deinhardt’s hepatitis vaccine was a correlative program which would find a role in the hepatitis program in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco in the mid-seventies, when gay men were offered a free hepatitis vaccine.
Koprowski and Deinhardt had something else in common besides testing mystery vaccines on chimps in the Belgian Congo. Back in Philadelphia both worked very closely during this period with Drs. Werner and Gertrude Henle at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. And we shall learn more about the fate of children in the care of the Henle’s in the next article of this Special Edition of JODD.
However, at this point we need to consider the use of children by Koprowski as human guinea pigs for his research products. In this area, Koprowski had an interesting agreement with the Clinton State Farms (Prison for Women). Under this agreement, and with the consent [called in all cases ‘informed volunteer consent’] pregnant inmates who delivered their children in prison were ‘requested’ to have their babies vaccinated by Dr. Koprowski with his ‘polio’ vaccine. And here we have a very suggestive and intriguing development. The evidence is that in late 1957 or early 1958, a newborn baby of an inmate received Koprowski’s ‘polio’ protection. Then, sixteen years later this vaccinated child born in Clinton and used as a test object by Koprowski had, by 1973, become a promiscuous drug addict in New Jersey, and had a baby of her own. And here is where the suggestive and intriguing development occurs: five years later, in 1979, the baby died of AIDS!
Obviously too young to be a drug user or promiscuous, it seems evident that she had caught the disease at birth from an AIDS-infected mother. Where, in 1979, could a 16-year-old have contracted the disease? The reasonable explanation is that Koprowski’s neonatal vaccination was the source of the mother’s disease. Then, as often happens, the mother, although a carrier presents no signs of the disease herself, but passes on a more virulent disease agent to her children at their birth. We will come back to Clinton State Farms and the use of children as unwitting guinea pigs.
However, before leaving Koprowski we need to note that many scientists observed during this period that Koprowski had a very special friend named Robert Gallo. It was, said one scientist who knew both men well, a ‘father-son relationship’! The significance of this warm friendship will become evident in ‘Robert Gallo,’ p.23.
Hilary Koprowski was another stud in the Rockefeller stable of scientific talent, joining Bjorn Sigurdsson. As the Director of the front Wistar Institute, Koprowski worked to develop a polio vaccine, while at the same time engaged in a number of mystery activities which required testing on children, prison inmates and chimpanzees in the Congo. All these activities can be linked to later manifestations of the AIDS/ CFS epidemics to officially hit the world in 1981.
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