By ALAN CANTWELL, J.R, M.D.
When AIDS officially began in 1981 the public was told that anal sex, drugs, and homosexuality were at the root of the new "gay plague." The first cases were all young, predominantly white, and previously healthy homosexual men from Manhattan who were dying mysteriously from "gay pneumonia" and "gay cancer" in the form of Kaposi’s sarcoma. The association with homosexuality was so remarkable that the disease was initially termed GRID ("gay-related immune deficiency"). To this day, gays are still blamed for the spread of AIDS into the U.S. population.
When the disease first broke out, a new virus was suspected, but officials reassured "the general public" there was nothing to worry about. Of course, the health experts were wrong. Now most of the world’s AIDS cases are heterosexuals. The AIDS virus (HIV) can also be transmitted vaginally; and one does not need to be a drug abuser, a promiscuous person or a homosexual to contract AIDS.
The Green Monkey Theory
Where did HIV originate? Prominent cancer virologists and government epidemiologists have theorised that HIV originated in African green monkeys. Purportedly the monkey virus "jumped species" and entered the black population. From there it migrated to Haiti and Manhattan. After the virus entered the black heterosexual population in the late 1970s, it rapidly spread to millions of blacks because of transfusions with HIV-infected blood, dirty needles, promiscuity and genital ulcers — or so the experts said.
Not all scientists believe the official monkey story, although it is rare to find people who express this view publicly. One persistent underground rumor is that AIDS is biological warfare. Proponents of the AIDS conspiracy theory believe that AIDS has nothing to do with green monkeys, homosexuality, drug addiction, genital ulcerations, anal sex or promiscuity, but that it has to do with scientists experimenting on blacks and gays: in short, AIDS is genocide. Most African-Americans have heard the story that HIV is a manufactured virus genetically-engineered to kill off the black race. Thirty percent of New York City blacks polled by The New York Times (October 29, 1990) actually believe AIDS is an ethno-specific bioweapon designed in a laboratory to infect black people.
Despite the general acceptance that HIV came from monkeys and the rain forest, there is no scientific evidence to prove that HIV and AIDS originated in Africa. What is true is that the first AIDS cases were uncovered in the U.S. in 1979, around the same time that AIDS cases were discovered in Africa. In addition, no stored African tissue from the 1970s tests positive for HIV. And scientists have a hard time explaining how a black heterosexual epidemic centered in Africa could have quickly transformed itself into a white homosexual epidemic in Manhattan.
The Gay Hepatitis-B Vaccine Experiment
Conveniently lost in the history of AIDS is the gay Hepatitis-B vaccine experiment that immediately preceded the decimation of gay Americans. A "cohort" of over a thousand young gays was injected with the vaccine at the New York Blood Center in Manhattan during the period November 1978 to October 1979.1 Similar gay experiments were conducted in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Denver, St. Louis, and Chicago, beginning in 1980.2 The AIDS epidemic broke out shortly thereafter.
The experiment was run by Wolf Szmuness, a Polish Jew born in 1919. He was a young medical student in eastern Poland when the Nazis invaded the country in 1939. His entire family perished in the Holocaust. When Poland was partitioned, Szmuness was taken prisoner and sent to Siberia.
After the war, he was allowed to finish medical school in Tomsk in central Russia. He married a Russian woman, had a daughter, and in 1959 was allowed to return to Poland where he became an expert in hepatitis.
According to June Goodfield’s account of his life in Quest for the Killers, Szmuness defected from Poland with his family in 1969, arriving penniless in New York with $15 in his pocket.3 Through scientific connections he found work as a laboratory technician at the New York Blood Center. Within a few years he was given his own lab at the center and was also appointed Professor of Public Health at Columbia University. By the mid-1970s, Szmuness was a world authority on hepatitis, and was invited back to Moscow in 1975 to give a scientific presentation. As a defector he was terrified to set foot back in the Soviet Union, but his colleagues assured him he would have the full protection of the U.S. State Department. His return to Russia was a scientific triumph.
In the late 1970s, Wolf Szmuness was awarded millions of dollars to undertake the most important mission of his life: the Hepatitis-B vaccine experiment. Szmuness specifically wanted to use gay men to avoid "serious legal and logistical problems."4 For his study he did not want monogamous men, nor men with lovers. He chose only healthy, young, responsible, intelligent, and primarily white homosexuals. The experiment was costly and he didn’t want any uncooperative or hard-to-find gays messing up his experiment. Involved in the experiment were the Centers for Disease Control, the National Institutes of Health, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Abbott Laboratories, and Merck, Sharp & Dohme. Szmuness’ experiment was hugely successful, and his vaccine was hailed as having tremendous global implications.
The Gay Plague
The links of the gay experiment to the outbreak of AIDS are obvious to anyone who wants to see the connection. Three months after the experiment began, the first cases of AIDS reported to the CDC appeared in young gay men in Manhattan in 1979. The first San Francisco AIDS case appeared in that city in September 1980, six months after the Hepatitis-B experiment started there.5 In June 1981 the AIDS epidemic became "official."
Were gay men given experimental vaccines contaminated with the AIDS virus? The government says no, but government agencies have a long history of covert and unethical medical experimentation, particularly with minorities. Was it simply a quirk of nature that a virus "out of Africa" would suddenly decimate the most hated minority in America?
Why did the U.S. government choose Wolf Szmuness, a Soviet-trained doctor and a recent American immigrant to head this dangerous experiment? Goodfield, who has written the definitive account of the Hepatitis-B experiment, claims Szmuness has a painful life. Confined as a political prisoner in Siberia during World War II, he was repeatedly interrogated and beaten by the Russian KGB for refusing to cooperate in spy activities. When he could not be broken, they warned him: "Say nothing of this to anyone, but remember. We will reach you anywhere in the world. No matter where you go, no matter where you try to hide, you will never be out of our grasp."6
The experimental Hepatitis-B vaccine was primarily manufactured by Merck. However, during the experiment Szmuness was concerned about possible vaccine contamination. Goodfield writes, "This was no theoretical fear, contamination having been suspected in one vaccine batch made by the National Institutes of Health, though never in Merck’s."7
After the Hepatitis-B experiment ended, Szmuness insisted that all thirteen thousand blood specimens donated by gay men be retained at the Blood Center for future use. Due to space requirements, it is highly unusual for any laboratory to retain so many old blood specimens. However, several years later when this blood was retested for the presence of HIV antibodies, government epidemiologists were able to detect the "introduction" and the spread of HIV into the gay community.
When asked why he was keeping so many vials of blood, Szmuness replied, "Because one day another disease may erupt and we’ll need this material."8 A few months after the Hepatitis-B experiment began at the Center, the first AIDS cases began to appear in gay men living in Manhattan. And the retesting of gay blood at the Blood Center proved that HIV was first introduced into the gay population of New York City sometime around 1978-1979, the same year Szmuness’ gay Hepatitis-B experiment began.9
Was Szmuness psychic in his prediction that a new disease would appear in the gay community? Or did he actually know or suspect that a new, deadly virus was being introduced into the gay volunteers? Unfortunately, the answers to these questions can only be surmised. In June 1982 Szmuness died of lung cancer. In his eulogy, Aaron Kellner of the Blood Center wrote: "It is the rare physician who, like Wolf Szmuness, is given the grace to touch the lives of billions of people; those living on this planet and generations yet unborn."10
The African Origin of AIDS
Was HIV introduced into millions of Africans in the late 1970s during the smallpox vaccine eradication programs sponsored by the World Health Organisation? It is known that animal and human cells harbor all sorts of viruses, including viruses not yet discovered, and animal tissue cell cultures are often used in the manufacture of viral vaccines. Therefore, the possibility of vaccine contamination with an animal virus is a constant danger in the manufacture of vaccines.
Despite the most meticulous precautions in production, contaminating animal viruses are known to survive the vaccine process. For example, during the 1950s, millions of people were injected with polio vaccines contaminated with "SV-40", a cancer-causing green monkey virus. Such vaccine contamination problems are largely kept hidden from the public. Yet in spite of the known danger, drug companies and physicians always pooh-pooh any suggestion that AIDS could have arisen from animal virus-contaminated vaccines. Animal cancer viruses are also contained in fetal calf serum, a serum commonly used as a laboratory nutrient to feed animal and human tissue cell cultures. Viruses in calf serum can be carried over as contaminants into the final vaccine product.
The problem of vaccine contamination by fetal calf serum and its relationship to AIDS is the subject of a letter by J. Grote ("Bovine visna virus and the origin of the AIDS epidemic") published in the Journal of the Royal (London) Society of Medicine in October 1988. Grote discounts the green monkey theory and questions whether bovine visna contamination of laboratory-used fetal bovine serum could cause AIDS. Bovine visna virus is similar in appearance to HIV. Grote, a London-based AIDS researcher, writes:
The seriousness of this becomes apparent when we consider the manufacture of vaccines requires the growth of virus in cell cultures using fetal calf serum in the growth medium. The contamination of vaccines with adventitious viruses has been of concern for many years and the presence of virus-like structures in ‘virus-screened’ bovine serum has been reported. It seems absolutely vital that all vaccines are screened for HIV prior to use and that bovine visna virus is further investigated as to its relationship to HIV and its possible causal role in progression towards AIDS.
Millions of African blacks are reportedly infected with HIV. This large number could never have been infected by the simple act of a monkey virus "jumping" over to infect one African in the late 1970s. If that were the case, why don’t we now have millions of AIDS cases in the U.S.? One logical explanation for the millions of Africans infected is that the vaccines used in the World Health Organisation’s mass inoculation programs were contaminated. Was the contamination accidental or deliberate? It is well-known in vaccine circles that the vaccinia (cowpox) virus used in the manufacture of the smallpox vaccine works well in genetic engineering. Charles Pillar and Keith Yamamoto, authors of Gene Wars: Military Control Over the New Genetic Technology, state: "Researchers have been able to splice genes coding for the surface coats of other viruses, such as influenza, hepatitis, and rabies into vaccinia virus DNA. The result: a ‘broad spectrum’ vaccine with a coat of many colors."11
In 1985, the Russians caused an international furore by claiming that AIDS was caused by experiments carried out in the USA as part of the development of new biological weapons. Responding to this Soviet accusation, Pillar and Yamamoto admit that "although no evidence has been presented to support this claim, manipulating genes to defeat the body’s immune system is quite feasible."12
In Magic Shots, Allan Chase claims that during the years 1966-1977, the WHO utilised "200,000 people in forty countries — most of them nondoctors trained by seven hundred doctors and health professionals from over seventy participating countries — spent $300 million, and used forty million bifurcated vaccinating needles to administer 24,000 million (2.4 billion) doses of smallpox vaccine."13
On May 11, 1987, The London Times, one of the world’s most respected newspapers, published a front-page story entitled "Smallpox vaccine triggered AIDS virus." The story suggests that African AIDS is a direct outgrowth of the WHO smallpox eradication program. The smallpox vaccine allegedly awakened a "dormant" AIDS virus infection in the black population. Robert Gallo, the co-discoverer of HIV, was quoted as saying, "The link between the WHO program and the epidemic is an interesting and important hypothesis. I cannot say that it actually happened, but I have been saying for some years that the use of live vaccines such as that used for smallpox can activate a dormant infection such as HIV (the AIDS virus)." The Times story is one of the most important stories ever printed on the AIDS epidemic; yet the story was killed and never appeared in any major U.S. newspaper or magazine.
Despite covert human experimentation, vaccine contamination problems, and the genetic engineering of new and highly dangerous viruses, the medical establishment ignores the AIDS bio-warfare issue. For example, in the prestigious British Medical Journal (May 13, 1989), Myra McClure and Thomas Schultz wrote a paper on the "Origin of HIV" and quickly disposed of the idea that AIDS is connected to germ warfare. They simply state: "Lack of supporting evidence precludes serious discussion of such a bizarre hypothesis. This review deals with the theories on the origin of HIV that are scientifically plausible."
Thus, medical science ignores evidence suggesting AIDS originated as a secret experiment. Most physicians and microbiologists steadfastly hold on to the illogical and improbable green monkey theory of AIDS. And the major media remain silent, often dismissing the bio-warfare theory as communist propaganda of the most malicious sort. Forgotten is the connection between the National Academy of Sciences and the military bio-warfare establishment in the development of biological weapons for mass killings.
Creation of a Super Germ
A decade before the first cases of AIDS, Dr. Donald M. MacArthur, a spokesman for the U.S. Department of Defense, told a Congressional Hearing that a "super germ" could be developed as part of our experimental bio-warfare program. This genetically engineered germ would be very different from any previous microbe known to mankind. The agent would be a highly effective killing agent because the immune system would be powerless against this super-microbe (Testimony before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970, dated July 1, 1969). A transcript of this meeting on "Synthetic Biological Agents" records the following comments of Dr. MacArthur:
1. All biological agents up to the present time are representatives of naturally occurring disease, and thus are known by scientists throughout the world. They are easily available to qualified scientists for research, either for offensive or defensive purposes.
2. Within the next 5 to 10 years, it would probably be possible to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease.
3. A research program to explore the feasibility of this could be completed in approximately 5 years at a total cost of $10 million.
4. It would be very difficult to establish such a program. Molecular biology is a relatively new science. There are not many competent scientists in the field, almost all are in university laboratories, and they are generally adequately supported from sources other than the Department of Defense. However, it was considered possible to initiate an adequate program through the National Academy of Sciences — National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The matter was discussed with the NAS-NRC, and tentative plans were made to initiate the program. However, decreasing funds in CB (chemical/biological) research, growing criticism of the CB program, and our reluctance to involve the NAS-NRC in such a controversial endeavor have led us to postpone it for the past two years. It is a highly controversial issue and there are many who believe such research should not be undertaken lest it lead to yet another method of massive killing of large populations... Should an enemy develop it, there is little doubt that it is an important area of potential military technological inferiority in which there is no adequate research program.
Was the AIDS virus, or other so-called "emerging viruses" such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, created in bio-warfare laboratories during the 1970s? During the 1970s, the U.S. Army’s bio-warfare program intensified, particularly in the area of DNA and gene splicing research. Renouncing germ warfare except for "medical defensive research," President Richard Nixon in 1971 ordered that a major part of the Army’s bio-warfare research be transferred over to the National Cancer Institute (where HIV would be discovered a decade later by Gallo). That same year, Nixon also initiated his famous War on Cancer, and offensive bio-warfare research (particularly genetic engineering of viruses) continued under the umbrella of orthodox cancer research. Cancer virologists learned "to jump" animal cancer viruses from one species of animal to another. Chicken viruses were put into lamb kidney cells; baboon viruses were spliced into human cancer cells; the combinations were endless. In due process, deadly man-made viruses were developed, and new forms of cancer, immunodeficiency, and opportunistic infections were produced when these viruses were forced or adapted into laboratory animals and into human tissue cell cultures.14
As predicted by the bio-warfare experts, new cancer-causing monster viruses were created that had a deadly effect on the immune system. In one government-sponsored experiment reported in 1974, newborn chimpanzees were taken away from their mothers at birth and weaned on milk obtained from virus-infected cows. Some of the chimps sickened and died with two new diseases that had never been observed in chimps. The first was a parasitic pneumonia known as Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia (later known as AIDS); the second was leukemia.15
Almost two decades after the first U.S. AIDS cases were diagnosed, most people still believe the government’s green monkey story; and AIDS educators teach that HIV originated in Africa. However, a few cracks in the monkey theory have appeared in print.
A story entitled "Research refutes idea that human AIDS virus originated in monkey," appeared in the Los Angeles Times (June 2, 1988). In the process of decoding the genetic structure of the monkey virus and the human AIDS virus, Japanese molecular biologists discovered that the gene sequences of the two viruses differed by more than 50% — indicating absolutely no genetic relationship between the green monkey virus and HIV. The Japanese investigators specifically criticised Myron Essex and Phyllis Kanki of Harvard Medical School, who "discovered" a second AIDS virus in African green monkeys that was widely heralded in the media. Essex and Kanki’s "second" AIDS virus was later proven to be a contaminant monkey virus traced back to the Harvard researchers own laboratory.
More than a decade earlier, in 1975, Gallo reported the "discovery" of a "new" and "human" HL-23 virus he cultured from human leukemia cells. Eventually the virus was proven to be three contaminating ape viruses (gibbon-ape virus, simian sarcoma virus, and baboon endogenous virus). Gallo claims he has no idea how these animal viruses contaminated his research.16
If HIV is not related to a green monkey virus, what is its origin? On November 13, 1988, The Orange County Register devoted an entire section of the newspaper to AIDS in Africa. Several African officials were interviewed; all were adamant that AIDS did not originate in Africa. The theory "is false and has never been scientifically proved, so why should Africa be the scapegoat?" declared Dr. Didace Nzaramba, director of the AIDS prevention program in Rwanda. The Register commented:
From early on, scientists have speculated that the disease might have begun in Africa. Researchers in Africa tested old blood samples and said they found HIV-infected serum that went back years. In 1985, Harvard researchers, Phyllis Kanki and Myron Essex, announced the discovery of a new virus isolated in green monkeys that seemed similar to HIV. Eventually, researchers concluded that early blood tests used in Africa were not reliable, and Kanki and Essex said their blood tests probably had been contaminated and that their results were invalid. But the perception of an African link was established.
With the publication of And The Band Played On in 1987, the media became obsessed with author Randy Shilts’ "Patient Zero" story. In the popular, award-winning book, a young Canadian airline steward named Gaeton Dugas is portrayed as the promiscuous gay man "who brought the AIDS virus from Paris and ignited the epidemic in North America." Shilts, who later died of AIDS, never explained where or how Dugas got his infection.
After a year of swollen lymph nodes and a rash, Dugas was finally diagnosed with AIDS-associated "gay cancer" in June 1980 in New York City. What Shilts probably did not know is that when Dugas was diagnosed in 1980, over twenty percent of the Manhattan gays in the Hepatitis-B experiment were HIV-positive. This 20% infection rate was discovered after the HIV blood test became available in 1985, and after the stored blood at the New York Blood Center was retested for HIV antibodies (JAMA, Vol. 255, pp. 2167-2172, 1986). Remarkably, these gay men had the highest recorded incidence of HIV anywhere in the world for that time! Even in African populations, where AIDS has been theorised to exist for decades, or even millennia, there were never reports of such a high incidence of HIV in 1980.
Shilts’ sensational Patient Zero story quickly became "fact." Even the AMA-sponsored American Medical News (October 23, 1987) fell for the ludicrous story, claiming that Dugas "may have brought AIDS to the United States." The media continue to promote unlikely stories about the origin of AIDS, always avoiding discussion of the idea that HIV came out of a laboratory, and always pointing the finger to black Africa.
In late 1987, the media widely reported an "old AIDS case" dating back to 1968. DNA testing of the blood and tissue was reported as HIV-positive.17 For the last year of his life, "Robert", a 15-year-old black boy from St. Louis, wasted away with a bizarre disease that severely bloated his legs and genitalia. His sexual preference was unknown, but his doctors tried hard to insinuate the dying boy was gay. At autopsy, internal Kaposi’s sarcoma of the rectum was discovered, along with anal warts and lacerations. And after fingering the dead boy’s rectum, the pathologist noted "a lax anal sphincter." When newer viral identification techniques were reapplied to Robert’s blood in 1990, his blood retested HIV-negative, proving that Robert never had AIDS.18
In 1990 the media sensationalised another "old AIDS case," this time an unmarried English sailor who died in Manchester in 1959. When his stored tissue remains tested positive for HIV, major newspapers throughout the world used this case to again discredit the persistent rumor that AIDS was a man-made disease. The New York Times (July 24) declared:
The case also refutes the widely publicised charges made by Soviet officials several years ago that AIDS arose from a virus that had escaped from a laboratory experiment that went awry or was a biological warfare agent. The human retrovirus group to which the AIDS virus belongs was unknown at the time. Nor did scientists then have the genetic engineering techniques needed to create a new virus.
In a letter to the medical journal Lancet in January 1996, this 1959 case was ruled not to be AIDS because the DNA tests were found to be contaminated due to a laboratory error.
Despite the denial of the Times regarding the laboratory creation of new AIDS-like viruses, it was common practice during the early 1970s for virologists to alter animal viruses by inserting them into other animal species and into human tissue cells in culture. Experiments performed at Harvard in the mid-1970s by Max Essex and Donald Francis (two of the best-known AIDS experts) produced AIDS in cats with the feline leukemia retrovirus. In addition, a decade before the outbreak of AIDS in the U.S., Robert Gallo was engineering cancer-causing retroviruses and studying the effects of viral mutants and their ability to suppress the immune system. A full description of Gallo’s animal retrovirus research activities dating back to 1967 is chronicled in Emerging Viruses, AIDS and Ebola: Nature, Accident or Genocide? by Dr. Leonard Horowitz.19
Secret and Covert
Biological Warfare Research
It is difficult, if not impossible, to determine the truth about global biological warfare capabilities and their possible effects on world health. The American taxpayer is kept ignorant about U.S. chemical and bio-warfare programs. Scientists involved in bio-warfare research are sworn to secrecy and silence. Thus, "classified" and "top secret" medical experimentation continues to be promoted by powerful government agencies, such as the CIA, the CDC, the Department of Defense, the military, and other institutions.
Recent revelations of horrific radiation experiments conducted on unsuspecting U.S. citizens during the Cold War years up until the 1980s have shocked the nation. Some of this research was conducted at the most prestigious medical institutions in our country. None of the perpetrators have been brought to trial. In light of these revelations, it is inconceivable to think that leading AIDS scientists would be unaware of the connections between their institutional research and the bio-warfare establishment.
Currently, strange and unprecedented diseases are mysteriously appearing in various parts of the world. The peculiar Persian Gulf War Syndrome has sickened over 50,000 of our vets who served in Desert Shield/Storm. Their illnesses have been largely dismissed by health experts as due to "psychological stress," even though there is evidence that this new disease is contagious and sexually-transmitted. Nevertheless, government health officials remain silent on these issues.
A few scientists insist that some cases of Gulf War Syndrome are related to biological warfare agents. Dr. Garth Nicholson and his wife Nancy, formerly scientists at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, have discovered in the blood of some sick reservists a new infectious microbe (a mycoplasma) that has part of the AIDS virus spliced into its genetic material! The Nicholsons say: "The type of mycoplasma we identified was highly unusual and it almost certainly didn’t occur naturally. It has one gene from the HIV-1 virus — but only one gene. This meant it was almost certainly an artificially modified microbe — altered purposefully by scientists." (National Enquirer, April 2, 1996).
By censoring certain aspects of AIDS history, particularly the origin of HIV, we allow dangerous medical experimentation to continue. The New York Blood Center is now testing a new vaccine made from a "harmless" canary-pox virus that has been genetically engineered to carry parts of HIV, the AIDS virus. The Center is recruiting HIV-negative gay men by funding Project Achieve, an organisation designed to test and sign-up young men for the new vaccine experiment. Homosexual men are lured into the program by posters that feature cute, multi-ethnic gay boys. According to Timothy Murphy of HX magazine, there is a waiting list for the Center’s vaccine experiment. Gay men are urged to sign-up with Project Achieve at (212) 388-0008.
The enigmatic Dr. Szmuness has been erased from AIDS chronicles. His name does not appear in Shilts’ Band, nor in Mirko Grmek’s History of AIDS (1990), or in Laurie Garret’s massive tome on emerging viruses, The Coming Plague (1994). Although his untimely death went largely unnoticed in medical journals, he was remembered and honored on May 11, 1984, by a small coterie of medical power brokers and distinguished scientists who convened at a landmark symposium in the U.S. capitol. The meeting entitled "Infection, Immunity, and Blood Transfusion" was sponsored by the American Red Cross.20
Paying tribute to Szmuness were top government scientists in AIDS and cancer research, the most well-known researchers in animal experimentation, the heads of the most prestigious biomedical establishments in the country, and the chief executives of drug companies tied to genetic engineering, vaccine production, and biological warfare research. Dr. Robert Gallo, who had announced the discovery of the AIDS virus to the American public three weeks earlier, was one of the most distinguished attendees.
There is an ominous link between cancer and AIDS, between animal experimentation and the genetic engineering of viruses, between biological warfare technology and drug companies, between gay experiments and AIDS, between vaccine programs and the contamination of the nation’s blood supply. Why else would all these people from diverse areas of science be attending this high level government conference?
There is also a connection between Szmuness’ gay experiment and the outbreak of AIDS that cannot be denied. This connection is not coincidental or a paranoid fantasy. It is time for a serious study of the link between covert biological warfare research and the initial outbreak of the "gay AIDS plague." Ignoring evidence pointing to AIDS as a man-made disease makes a sham out of AIDS education.
1. Szmuness W, Stevens C, Harley E, et al: Hepatitis-B vaccine; Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England J Med 303: 833-841, 1980.
2. Francis D, Hadler S, Thompson S, The prevention of Hepatitis-B with vaccine. Report of the Centers for Disease Control multi-center efficacy trial among homosexual men. Annals Int Med 97: 362-366, 1982.
3. Goodfield J: Vaccine on trial. Goodfield J. Quest for the Killers. Birkhauser, Boston, 1985, p. 51-97.
4. Szmuness W: Large scale efficacy trials of Hepatitis-B vaccines in the USA; Baseline data and protocols. J Med Virology 4: 327-340, 1979.
5. Cantwell, A: The Hepatitis-B vaccine trials (1978-1981). In AIDS & The Doctors of Death. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, CA, 1988, pp. 65-80.
6. Goodfield, Quest for the Killers, p. 57
7. Ibid, p. 86
8. Ibid, p. 92
9. Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Zang EA, et al: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City. JAMA 255: 2167-2172, 1986.
10. Kellner A: Reflections of Wolf Szmuness in, Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 182: 3-10, 1985.
11. Piller C and Yamamoto K: Gene Wars: Military Control over the New Genetic Technologies. Beech Tree Books/William Morrow, New York, 1988, p. 103
12. Ibid, p. 97
13. Chase A: Magic Shots. William Morrow and Company, New York, 1982, pp. 81-82.
14. Cantwell: Biowarfare. In Queer Blood. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, 1993, pp. 31-40.
15. McClure HM, Keeling ME, Custer RP, et al: Erythroleukemia in two infant chimpanzees fed milk from cows naturally infected with the bovine C-type virus. Cancer Research 34: 2745-2757, 1974.
16. Connor S: AIDS science stands on trial. New Scientist, February 12, 1987, pp. 49-58.
17. Garry RF, Witte MH, Gottleib AA, et al: Documentation of an AIDS virus infection in the United States in 1968. JAMA 260: 2085-2087, 1988.
18. Cantwell: AIDS: New or old? In Queer Blood. Aries Rising Press, Los Angeles, 1993, pp. 61-69.
19. Horowitz LG.: Emerging Viruses, AIDS & Ebola: Nature, Accident or Genocide? Tetrahedron, Inc, Rockport, MA, 1996.
20. Dodd RY, Barker LF (Eds): Infection, Immunity and Blood Transfusion. Prcdngs of the XVIth Annual Scientific Symposium of the American Red Cross, Wa. DC. Alan R Liss, Inc, NY 1985, pp. xiii-xv.
Dr. Alan Cantwell is a physician and AIDS and cancer researcher. He is the author of AIDS & the Doctors of Death and Queer Blood, published by Aries Rising Press. He can be reached at PO Box 29532, Los Angeles, CA 90029, USA. Phone/Fax +1 213-462-6458, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. This article originally appeared in Paranoia magazine. 46a.htm